Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society (1964) 11: 44- 48

Animal modification of native vegetation: Interactions between man, deer & vegetation in Michigan

Research Article
Richard J. McNeil 1,2
  1. Game Division, Michigan Department of Conservation, Lansing
  2. Fullbright Scholar, with Animal Ecology Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

[First paragraph...]
Compared with New Zealand, ecological communities in North America are very complex. In the state of Michigan alone there are over 50 different species of mammals, about 300 of birds and perhaps 40 terrestrial or partly terrestrial reptiles and amphibians. Many of these species of animals are very abundant and exert considerable influences on a rich and varied flora. This short paper will, however, discuss only man and the whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), perhaps the two most important animals influencing the vegetation of Michigan.