Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society (1965) 12: 44- 57

The ecology of the Subantarctic islands of New Zealand: Oceanography and marine zoology of the New Zealand Subantaractic

Research Article
Elliot W. Dawson  
  1. N.Z. Oceanographic Institute, D.S.I.R., Wellington

[First paragraphs...]
The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, comprising Bounty and Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell, Macquarie and the Snares, lie within the Subantarctic zone of surface waters, bounded on the north by the Subtropical Convergence Region and on the south by the Antarctic Convergence about the latitude of Macquarie I. (Fig. 1).
Whether the Chatham Is., the Snares, and even the southern New Zealand mainland should be considered 'subantarctic' may be resolved by defining as 'subantarctic' any regions washed by 'subantarctic water', in the hydrologist's use of the term. Undoubtedly these more northern regions show the effects of subantarctic waters and so should be discussed with the New Zealand Subantarctic. Similarly, Macquarie I., lying close to the Antarctic Convergence, should be included because it shows the mixed influence of Antarctic and Subantarctic waters.