The sand dune vegetation of Chrystalls Beach, southern New Zealand, with particular reference to the cushion community
The sand dune system at Chrystalls Beach, New Zealand comprises front dune, dune hollow and rear dune areas. On the front dunes are two communities: one on the seaward face of the dunes, and another on the landward face. Most of the dune hollow is occupied by a series of grassland communities, but there are areas of a distinctive cushion community, still largely native in its species composition. It is suggested that the cushion community is maintained against invasion by a switch, possibly involving sand grain size, soil organic content, water supply, wind and magnesium:calcium ratio.