Aerial glyphosate application reduces grey willow (Salix cinerea) canopy cover, increases light availability, and stimulates kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides) growth

Grey willow (Salix cinerea) is widely established in New Zealand’s remaining swamps and fens, and in many areas has replaced endemic kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides) forest. Conservation managers need to know how to restore willow-invaded wetlands to a resilient natural state, but knowledge on how to achieve this goal is limited. We planted kahikatea seedlings into an intact stand of grey willow and into areas where the herbicides glyphosate or triclopyr had been aerially applied to control willow ~1.5 years earlier.