Clearing islands as refugia for black-fronted tern (Chlidonias albostriatus) breeding colonies in braided rivers

Black-fronted terns/tarapirohe (Chlidonias albostriatus) are highly adapted to nesting on clear shingle areas of the braided rivers in the South Island, New Zealand. They are nationally and internationally classified as endangered. Ongoing threats, primarily an interaction of predation and habitat degradation or loss, have resulted in population decline. Conservation management in the form of control of introduced mammalian predators has proven partially successful.

Birds and small mammals in kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) and gorse (Ulex europaeus) scrub and the resulting seed rain and seedling dynamics

Native kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) and adventive gorse (Ulex europaeus) stands aged 10-14 years, and not grazed by domestic stock, were studied near Nelson, New Zealand. The aim was to determine their use by introduced small mammals, and native and adventive birds, and the effects of these animals on seed rain and seedling dynamics as factors influencing vegetation succession. Seed traps were established where they could catch only bird-dispersed or wind-blown seed, and seedling emergence and growth were monitored.

Meta-analysis of status and trends in breeding populations of black-fronted terns (Chlidonias albostriatus) 1962

Black-fronted tern (Chlidonias albostriatus) breeding populations on braided rivers in the South Island, New Zealand, are assumed to be in decline as their habitat comes under increasing pressure from exotic pests, hydroelectric power development and water abstraction. We collated 326 index counts of black-fronted terns from 2313 km of surveys on 84 rivers throughout their breeding range to test this assumption. Black-fronted terns were observed on 73% (n = 61) of rivers surveyed, and the sum of the most recent counts was 8325 birds.