Biodiversity assets often require conservation management, which, in turn, necessitates decisions about which ecosystem, community or species should be prioritised to receive resources. Population viability analysis (PVA) uses a suite of quantitative methods to estimate the likelihood of population decline and extinction for a given species, and can be used to assess a population's status, providing useful information to decision-makers. In New Zealand, a range of taxa have been analysed using the PVA approach, but the scope of its implementation has not previously been reviewed.
'Extensive' herbivore/vegetation models and 'intensive' grazing models yield two conclusions for sustained-yield harvesting of populations regulated by an interaction with their resources. First, the growth curve for the population, relating growth rate to current density, and the equilibrium yield/effort curve under harvesting, are likely to be asymmetric, with peaks displaced to the right and maximum growth rate and harvest greater then predicted by the symmetrical, single-species logistic model.