pollen limitation

Variable pollinator dependence of three Gastrodia species (Orchidaceae) in modified Canterbury landscapes

Pollination is an ecosystem service affected by anthropogenic activity, often resulting in reduced fruit set and increased extinction risk. Orchids worldwide have a wide range of pollination systems, but many New Zealand orchids are self-pollinating. We studied the pollination system of three saprophytic native orchids from the genus Gastrodia in modified landscapes in Canterbury, New Zealand: G. cunninghamii, G. minor, and an undescribed taxon G. “long column”. The species showed two distinct pollination systems.

Invasional meltdown: pollination of the invasive liana Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Passifloraceae) in New Zealand

Banana passionfruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima) is an invasive vine in New Zealand where it lacks its natural hummingbird pollinator. We investigated the mating system and reproductive traits that facilitate its spread in the Marlborough Sounds. Flower observations revealed that visitors were almost exclusively introduced honeybees and bumblebees, indicating an invasive mutualism.