In late 1986 an official deer hunting regime in the Murchison Mountains, Fiordland, was compared with two commerical aerial hunting regimes in the adjacent Stuart Mountains by measuring the density of deer faecal pellet groups. Overall densities in the Stuart Mountains were twice those in the Murchison Mountains. Official hunting appeared to be more effective than commercial hunting at reducing and controlling deer densities in heavily forested catchments, but not in catchments with less extensive forest cover.
Norway rats were eradicated on bush-covered Hawea Island (9 ha) in Breaksea Sound, using the anticoagulant rodenticide "Talon 50 WB" (brodifacoum). The work was done as a conservation measure and to evaluate the feasibility and costs of eradicating rodents quickly from islands. The 50-100 rats present were eradicated in about two weeks by applying a simple strategy that took full account of the characteristics of the poison, he environment, and the behaviour of the target species.
Mineral element concentrations are presented in leaf and bark material from six woody species growing at a single site on the subantarctic Auckland Islands. Foliar total mineral element concentrations range from 5.81% (Olearia lyallii) to 2.71 % (Dracophyllum longifolium), the lowest concentrations occurring in slow growing species tolerant of nutrient-poor soils.
Increased dieback in Westland rata (Metrosideros umbellata)-kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa) forests has been linked to the build-up of populations of the Australian brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Within these forests young even-aged stands are observed to be more resilient to dieback than older stands. The effect of possum browsing on individual rata trees was related to the level of defoliation. Trees which had been not or only lightly browsed maintained intact canopies.
The distribution of banded rail habitat use in a saltmarsh was measured by recording the rate at which their footprints accumulated. The relationships between habitat use, time of day, state of the tide, and 15 environmental parameters, were investigated using multivariate analysis. Banded rails were most active in the morning and evening and immediately after a tide. They did not venture far from cover and their activity was greatest at low levels on the shore, and amongst certain vegetation types.
The distinction is drawn in this paper between true dendrochronological studies (using crossdating) and studies using tree-ring counts to age trees or date events. The advantages of the former approach are emphasized. We summarize the main methods used in dendrochronology, concentrating on new approaches and techniques important in the New Zealand context, present a review of recent dendrochronological research in New Zealand, and finally discuss applications of dendrochronology relevant to New Zealand.
Deer density indices were estimated in 1969, 1975, and 1984 in the core of the Wapiti Area of Fiordland National Park. Between 1969 and 1984, density above timberline was reduced to near zero by commercial airborne hunting, with smaller decreases in the forest. Overall density declined by 81%. An estimated 2007± 385 deer were present in the 850 km2 survey area in 1984, with an average density in the forest of 3.47±0.66/km2. The highest densities remained in the most completely forested sub-area (Catseye).
The Noises and Motukawao Islands in Hauraki Gulf are small (maximum size 26 ha) and bush— clad, and none is permanently inhabited. Norway rats reached the Noises about 1956, but their history on the Motukawao group is unknown. Live and kill-trapping was carried out between August 1977 and December 1981, mainly on the Noises Islands. Trapping success was high initially but declined rapidly and remained very low after mid-1978. Rats travelled widely between consecutive captures in live-traps and three home ranges of males averaged 1.2 ha.
We quantify the notion of predictable species loss from progressively smaller islands, and apply the quantification to the indigenous forest-dwelling birds of a series of New Zealand islands and to the passerines of the Cyclades Archipelago in the Aegean Sea. The analysis focuses on the reasons why the species-area relationship deviates from a perfect rank-correlation. For both avifaunas, most species are found remarkably predictably: they approximate a pattern in which each species occupies all those and only those islands larger than some species-specific minimum area.
Meteorological data from stations around and within the Kaimai Ranges and data from temporary sites are used to characterise the climate of the ranges. Lowland climate is warm temperate with ample rainfall but the upland region is cooler, wetter and frequently enveloped in fog. Frequent fog plays an important part in the climate of upland regions. By modifying light, moisture and temperature regimes fog may be a significant determinant of plant associations and may severely restrict growth.