kiwi

Protected areas for kiwi in mainland forests of New Zealand: how large should they be?

This paper examines, theoretically, how dispersal affects the viability of brown kiwi populations in protected areas of different size. Brown kiwi are threatened by introduced mammalian predators in mainland forests and are likely to persist only in managed forests where predators are controlled. In each protected area, the kiwi population will function as a net source, with an outflow of juveniles into the adjoining forest and minimal backflow into the reserve.

Incubation behaviour and egg physiology of kiwi (Apteryx spp.) in natural habitats

Incubation behaviour varies among the different taxa of kiwi. For North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) and little spotted kiwi (A. owenii), only the male incubates the eggs, except for in the first week. Meanwhile, for Okarito brown kiwi (A. mantelli) and the tokoeka (A. australis), incubation is shared by both sexes. In addition, amongst southern tokoeka, family group members can assist with incubation to the extent that breeding males may take no part in incubation at all.

Role of predation in the decline of kiwi, Apteryx spp, in New Zealand

Kiwi have declined markedly in abundance and range since human settlement of New Zealand. Three of the four species are still extant in mainland forests, despite decades of co-existence with various introduced mammals. Little spotted kiwi is now probably confined to offshore islands. The role of introduced mammals in these population declines was evaluated by measuring the survival rates of adults, eggs and chicks of brown kiwi (A. mantelli) and great spotted kiwi (A. haastii) in mainland forests.