The invasion of non-native epiphyte Platycerium bifurcatum in Auckland’s urban forest canopy

New Zealand has been subject to extensive plant introductions since the 1840s leading to c. 2700 naturalised plant taxa including 500 serious environmental weeds. To date, non-native plant invasions in New Zealand have not included epiphytic invasions in forest canopies. Numerous records indicate non-mediated naturalisation of individuals of the non-native epiphytic fern Platycerium bifurcatum have been made; further, recent survey work on urban epiphytes identified a number of juveniles across the Auckland isthmus. To investigate the extent of P.