The lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina t. tuberculata) has been found in 18 locations in indigenous forest in North Island since 1961, mainly in Northland kauri forest (including Little Barrier Island), on the volcanic plateau (including Tongariro National Park), Urewera National Park and in Tararua Range. In South Island this bat has only been reported once since 1961, in North West Nelson Forest Park, and must be regarded as endangered. It is present also on Codfish Island, but is thought to have become extinct on Big South Cape and Solomon Islands about 1967.
The use of non-destructive and non-invasive monitoring methods is often necessary for species of high conservation status. Developing monitoring methods to maximise numbers of individuals found is important, given that rare species can be difficult to locate. Artificial refuges called ‘weta motels’ have been used for monitoring tree weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) since 1992, but poor occupancy for Hemideina ricta and H. femorata necessitated an improved design and assessment of placement to encourage tree weta use.
Urbanisation is a significant and increasing threat to biodiversity at the global scale. To maintain and restore urban biodiversity, local communities and organisations need information about how to modify green spaces to enhance species populations. ‘Citizen science’ initiatives monitoring the success of restoration activities also require simple and robust tools to collect meaningful data. Using an urban monitoring study of the bellbird (Anthornis melanura), we offer advice and guidance on best practice for such monitoring schemes.
Size, density and distribution of the brown garden snail (Cantareus aspersus) were observed relative to cover at a coastal reserve on the North Island, New Zealand. Cover variables depended on vegetation height and available debris (rubbish, wood, cow dung). Air temperature, ground temperature, and relative humidity were recorded continuously during the field survey for the various cover types. Live snails used debris disproportionately as resting habitat, where relative humidity and temperature were the least variable.