canopy openness

Native plant species richness in non-native Pinus contorta forest

Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) is invasive in many southern hemisphere countries, having spread extensively from original plantings. It is widely controlled to limit its spread and negative impacts, and is generally assumed to have little value for native plant biodiversity. We surveyed vegetation in two stands of montane wilding P. contorta forest, and recorded a subcanopy of more than 50 native plant species from 35 genera, including trees, shrubs, ferns, and orchids.

Light environments occupied by conifer and angiosperm seedlings in a New Zealand podocarp–broadleaved forest

Interaction between conifers and angiosperms in New Zealand’s podocarp–broadleaved forests is a topic of enduring interest. We aimed to determine if the often discontinuous regeneration of the podocarps Dacrydium cupressinum and Prumnopitys ferruginea can be attributed to their seedlings’ tolerating less shade than those of angiosperm canopy trees and/or to occupying a narrower range of light environments.