Temporal shifts in the pair-bond dynamics of New Zealand robins (Petroica australis)

Winter is a challenging time for temperate insectivorous songbirds, due to colder temperatures, reduced prey activity and shorter diurnal foraging times. For species that are non-migratory, territorial and monogamous, winter conditions may result in within-pair competition. However, little is known about how monogamous pairs coexist on their winter territories. We investigated temporal patterns in male–female interactions of the New Zealand robin (Petroica australis to better understand mechanisms of coexistence during winter.