The role of blackbirds (Turdus merula) in weed invasion in New Zealand

The naturalised European blackbird (Turdus merula) is the most widely distributed avian seed disperser in New Zealand. Together with the native silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) they are the major seed dispersers over large areas of New Zealand. I review the international literature on aspects of the ecology and behaviour of blackbirds relevant to their potential for dispersing weeds in New Zealand. Blackbirds eat a wide range of native and exotic fruit including many naturalised species.