Sounding out the nest: Unobtrusive localisation of North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) incubation burrows

Monitoring breeding outcomes of cryptic nocturnal species such as the North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) is an important aim for conservation management in New Zealand. While fitting male kiwi with radio transmitters enables incubation burrows to be found and monitored, it is invasive and expensive. Remote monitoring methods (without handling of birds) are preferable.