Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society (1965) 12: 63- 68

The ecology of the Subantarctic islands of New Zealand: Birds and mammals of the Subantarctic Islands

Research Article
R. A. Falla  
  1. Dominion Museum, Wellington

[First paragraph...]
If comprehensive limits are allowed for a zone in the New Zealand area designated 'Subantarctic', it would include the outlyers of Stewart 1., the Snares and the Chathams in the north, and Macquarie I. in the south. There is, however, a very mixed fauna in the northern zone with some derivative subantarctic elements only and this is clearly distinguishable from the middle zone which would include Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes and Bounty Is. The southern zone represented by Macquarie is distinguishable again, its main elements being strongly circumpolar in affinities. For example, Macquarie has three genera of penguins found also in the Indian and Atlantic sectors of the Subantarctic and not otherwise found in the New Zealand Subantarctic as defined above. The sub-species of one of the mollymawks breeding at Macquarie is a circumpolar form and differs from an endemic race breeding at Campbell I. The same is true of the wandering albatrosses and the cormorants of these two areas so that Macquarie may be excluded from the more descriptive part of this paper except for some comparisons. For the same reason Foveaux Strait, the Snares and Chatham Is. are not dealt with in detail. This leaves the other four island groups for consideration.