The Fiordland crested penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus is one of the least studied crested penguin species, with indications the species has a declining population, which would be in line with the historic and contemporary trends for most crested penguins. To determine the current population trend of the Fiordland crested penguin, a number of monitoring programmes using both abundance counts and demographic modelling approaches were carried out between 1990 and 2010 in the northern half of the speciesí range.
New Zealand (NZ) is an internationally significant area for penguins. All NZ penguin species are listed in ‘at risk’ threat categories. The naturally uncommon Snares crested penguins (Eudyptes robustus), which are restricted to NZ subantarctic islands, are highly susceptible to localised stochastic events and human activities. There has been uncertainty about population size and trends for Snares crested penguins.