During a comprehensive survey in 1999, 2000 and 2001, we investigated the number of breeding yellow-eyed penguin pairs on Stewart Island, where cats are present, and on adjacent cat-free islands. We found 79 pairs of yellow-eyed penguin breeding in 19 discrete locations on Stewart Island (4.2 pairs per location), and 99 pairs breeding in 10 discrete locations on all cat-free islands (9.9 pairs per location). Large-scale humaninduced habitat modifications have not occurred on Stewart Island, nor on any of its adjacent offshore islands.
Predation of yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks may be reduced by removing stock around penguin breeding sites because long grass may reduce lagomorph abundance and hence small mammal predators. This study tests this hypothesis in the South Island, New Zealand. The abundance of lagomorph faeces (mainly rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, but some European hare Lepus europaeus) was used as an index of relative abundance of lagomorphs at 16 penguin breeding sites in winter 1991 and 37 sites in 1992/93.