Wind damage and response in New Zealand forests: a review

The literature on wind damage in New Zealand forests is reviewed to investigate how abiotic and biotic factors influence damage severity, damage type, and forest recovery. Winds that damage forests tend to result from extra-tropical depressions or from topographically enhanced westerly air flows. Severe wind damage can occur when wind speeds exceed c. 0 km/hr, although investigating the relationship between damage and wind speeds is difficult, as gusts, for which speed is usually unrecorded, are important.