Dead frond “skirts” as tree fern defence: what is the evidence?

Many tree fern taxa have a skirt, an encircling structure of persistent dead fronds or stipes around the growing crown at the top of the trunk. Page and Brownsey (1986) hypothesised that the function of these skirts was to protect tree ferns against damage from large epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and climbing plants. Tree fern trunks provide both suitable establishment surfaces for a range of woody epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in New Zealand, as well as attachment surfaces for climbing rātā (Metrosideros spp.).

Studies on the vegetation of Mount Colenso, New Zealand 2. The population dynamics of red beech.

The population structure of red beech (Nothofagus fusca) is described for four forest stands situated at different altitudes on Mount Colenso. Data on red beech seedling densities and frequency distributions of living and dead tree diameters (d.b.h.) are presented. Red beech seedlings are shown to be more numerous, and on average larger, on decaying red beech logs than elsewhere. This seedling site preference could lead to, a 'regeneration cycle', and explain the 'regeneration gaps' and bimodal d.b.h. frequency distributions commonly found in red beech forest in the Ruahine ranges.

Forest regeneration problems in the Hunua range, Auckland

[First paragraph...]
The Hunua Range consists of approximately thirty square miles of dense mature rain forest and an equal area of scrub and second growth. It is situated nearly thirty miles south-east of Auckland City on the western edge of the Firth of Thames (Fig. 1.) The range comprises a group of deeply dissected, up-faulted blocks of Mesozoic greywacke. The upland region is sharply delimited from the rolling lowlands by four well-defined fault lines in the east, south and west. To the north the area dips gradually into the Tamaki Strait and the Papakura-Clevedon lowland.

Effects of red deer on tree regeneration and growth in Aorangi Forest, Wairarapa

New Zealand forests have been substantially modified by introduced red deer over the past century. New Zealand’s indigenous forest managers need to know if regeneration of palatable tree species can be restored following control or eradication of browsing ungulates. Aorangi Forest, Wairarapa, suffered dramatic changes in forest understorey composition by the 1950s after more than seven decades of colonisation by red deer (Cervus elaphus), feral goats (Capra hircus) and pigs (Sus scrofa).

Fallow deer impacts on Wakatipu beech forest

This study uses data from forty-nine 20 m × 20 m permanent plots measured in 1976, 1982, 1989 and 1997-2002 in Wakatipu Forest, western Otago. We relate changes in red (Nothofagus fusca), silver (Nothofagus menziesii) and mountain beech (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides) forest vegetation to the presence of fallow deer (Dama dama). Vegetation composition is likely to have been altered prior to plot establishment, and results show that there was little change in vegetation composition during the study.

Cattle grazing and the regeneration of totara (Podocarpus totara var. waihoensis) on river terraces, south Westland, New Zealand

Totara-matai forests are an under-represented forest type in Westland, relative to their original extent, and require protection and enhancement where possible. This study examined the regeneration of totara on gorse-covered river terraces of the Whataroa and Waiho Rivers, on a site grazed by cattle at Whataroa, and ungrazed sites at both locations. Totara is regenerating prolifically at all sites. Tall-seedling densities were significantly higher at the grazed Whataroa site than at the ungrazed Whataroa site.

Impact of cattle on conservation land licensed for grazing in South Westland, New Zealand

Making use of existing fences as ready-made exclosures, this study aimed to assess the long-term effects of cattle grazing on forest margins. Results indicated: 1) that cattle browsing and trampling has an impact on vegetation species composition, structure and regeneration; 2) that the effects of a particular grazing regime may take many decades to dissipate; and 3) that the impacts of cattle change with stock intensity. Some plant species appeared to be highly palatable to cattle and only occurred on sites without cattle.

Vegetative Production and Performance of Calluna vulgaris in New Zealand, with Particular Reference to Tongariro National- Park

Aspects of the production and vegetative performance of Calluna vulgaris (heather) were examined in four areas of New Zealand between 1981 and 1983; Tongariro National Park in the North Island, together with Mount Cook National Park, the Wilderness Scientific Reserve, and Ben Callum peat bog in the South Island. The height and height/width quotient of Calluna bushes, the diameter increment of woody stems and the amount of flowers/stem all decreased with altitude.

Magnitude of Canopy Dieback and Implications for Conservation of Southern Rata-Kamahi (Metrosideros umbellataWeinmannia racemosa) Forests, Central Westland, New Zealand

The amount of conspicuous canopy dieback in all central Westland southern rata-kamahi forests east of the Alpine Fault, between 500 m altitude and treeline, was assessed and mapped from aerial photographs taken in 1984-85 and verified by aerial reconnaissance of selected areas in 1988. At least 20% of all canopy trees, predominantly southern rata (Metrosideros umbellata) and Hall's totara (Podocarpus hallii), were dead in 1984-85.