Translocations of kiwi (Apteryx spp.) are one of the most common and growing types of conservation translocations in New Zealand. However, their outcomes remain mostly unpublished, which does not allow for sharing of lessons learnt from past developments. We reviewed 102 kiwi translocations from the 19th century until 2018, and identified factors affecting their outcome. North Island brown kiwi (A.
Mortality and/or dispersal immediately after release can cause translocated populations to fail over both the short and long term, particularly at mainland sanctuaries. However, post-release mortality and dispersal can be limited by releasing individuals with an increased probability of survival and site attachment. We monitored a South Island saddleback (tieke; Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus) population, translocated to a mainland sanctuary, for one year after release to understand the combined influence of post-release mortality and dispersal on initial establishment.