The arthropods of the floors of six forest types (three podocarp/beech forests, a beech forest without podocarps, a young plantation of Pinus radiata and a podocarp/hardwood forest) were examined. The podocarp/beech forests are richest in species and numbers of animals. The beech forest has fewer species and individuals than podocarp/beech but also has less varied litter. Most species found in beech are also present in podocarp/beech. Young P. radiata has an impoverished fauna with few species and low numbers of animals.
The main entomological problems of the indigenous, the exotic and coniferous forests of New Zealand are discussed, Insects which could cause serious mortality or growth losses should be prevented from entering this country. The control of forest insects already established in New Zealand depends mainly on natural and introduced biological agents and upon silvicultural practices. The use of insecticides is advocated in forest nurseriesand when biological controls fail.
The Canterbury Plains have lost most of their pre-Polynesian indigenous vegetation, primarily forest and shrubland. One of the few remaining areas is the 2.3 ha Eyrewell Scientific Reserve which consists mostly of low kānuka (Kunzea ericoides) forest and a small area of grassland. We assessed the Reserve vegetation using a combination of plots and transect surveys at different times of the year between 2001–2003. For comparison with the Reserve vegetation we also assessed plots in an adjacent grazed kānuka remnant, adjacent cultivated pasture and Eyrewell Forest, a pine plantation.
The Canterbury Plains in the eastern South Island is one of the most modified regions of New Zealand with less than 2% of indigenous vegetation cover remaining. The critically endangered ground beetle Holcaspis brevicula Butcher, a local endemic known only from a small area in that region, is thought to be threatened by the loss and fragmentation of the formerly widespread forest and shrubland habitat. Previously, only the two type specimens, both male, were known to science. From 2000–2005, we conducted a survey for H.
Exotic pine plantations constitute a significant landscape feature in the North Island of New Zealand but their conservation value for native plant species is not often documented. Pine stem density, height and basal area of nine plantations of Pinus radiata ranging in age from 6 to 67 years in Kinleith Forest was determined. Pines reached heights of 60 m, and stand basal areas up to 183 ± 14 m(2)ha(-1). The abundance of woody shrubs, tree ferns and ground ferns was assessed in each stand.
“A freezing chamber offers an easy place for such [frost] experiments... and ... valuable data as to the cold-resisting powers of our plants might be arrived at” (Cockayne, 1897).