Generalist entomopathogens as biological indicators of deforestation and agricultural land use impacts on Waikato soils

The relative abundance of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi was estimated for 10 sites in each of indigenous forest, pasture, and cropland habitats by baiting soil samples with Galleria larvae. The steinernematid Steinernema feltiae (Filip) was the dominant nematode, occurring in soils from all three habitat types. The heterorhabditid Heterorhabditis zelandica Poinar was recovered only from soils of podocarp (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (A. Rich.)) forests.

Burrowing behaviour of the New Zealand indigenous earthworm Octochaetus multiporus (Megascolecidae : Oligochaeta)

Mature Octochaetus multiporus in pots of sieved soil created a network of burrows with a diameter of about 10 mm which did not open to the surface. Several chambers 15 to 20 mm wide and 20 to 50 mm long were found within the burrow network; some worms were found curled within these chambers which also contained a quantity of loose cast material. Octochaetus multiporus responded to the presence of plants by burrowing nearer to the surface under white clover and nearer to bottom of the pot under chicory.