Autopsies on over 3000 rabbits collected between October 1980 and January 1983 provided information on the reproduction of rabbits in Central Otago. In contrast to year-round breeding elsewhere in New Zealand, reproduction was restricted to the period September-February. Distinct seasonal cycles occurred in both male and female fertility. Both sexes reached peak fertility when 12-17 months old. Female fertility is also related to carcass weight and condition. Most females (80%) experienced some pre-natal mortality, which accounted for about 30% of ovulations.