The dispersal, germination and establishment of the New Zealand Loranthaceae (Alepis flavida, Peraxilla colensoi, P. tetrapetala, Ileostylus micranthus and Tupeia antarctica) were investigated. The most important bird dispersers were tui, bellbirds and silvereyes. These birds appear to provide reasonably good quality dispersal: fruits were swallowed whole and the seeds later defecated in germinable condition; birds tended to visit plants for only 1-2 minutes and eat a few mistletoe fruits each time.
If deterministic processes consistently structure ecological communities, similar patterns in species interactions should be observed in different geographic areas that experience similar environmental conditions. I tested for convergent patterns in dietary diversity of fruit-eating birds inhabiting similar latitude forests in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. I observed birds foraging for fruits over two fruiting seasons in both Nelson Lakes National Park, South Island, New Zealand, and the Pacific Rim National Park, Vancouver Island, Canada.