To be considered an effective pollinator, a floral visitor must not only be able to remove pollen but also transfer this pollen to a receptive conspecific stigma. While studies of diurnal pollination are commonplace, our understanding of the effectiveness of nocturnal pollinators is limited largely because of the difficulties of doing these studies at night. As a result of this, the way in which moths transfer pollen between flowers has been understudied globally, despite many authors suggesting they could be significant contributors to pollination.
Large areas of mountain beech (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides) forest in the South Island of New Zealand have been destroyed by fire and replaced by grassland or shrubland. Mountain beech regenerates into grassland or shrubland mainly by slow spread from forest margins, though instances of long-distance spread into manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) shrubland have been recorded.
The dominant native woody species forming early-successional vegetation on formerly forested sites in lowland New Zealand were kānuka (Kunzea ericoides) and mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) (Myrtaceae). These have been replaced extensively by gorse (Ulex europaeus, Fabaceae), a naturalised species in New Zealand. Because gorse typically gives way to native broadleaved (angiosperm) forest in about 30 years, it is often considered desirable for facilitating native forest restoration.