long-term monitoring

Hawkweed invasion does not prevent indigenous non-forest vegetation recovery following grazing removal

Factors controlling vegetation restoration of depleted short-tussock grasslands are poorly understood. We investigated effects of mouse-ear hawkweed (‘hawkweed’, Pilosella officinarum) cover and environmental stress associated with landform and soil type on the rate and pattern of indigenous vegetation recovery from grazing in the highly-modified 1000-ha Lake Tekapo Scientific Reserve in the north of the Upper Waitaki (‘Mackenzie’) Basin. The reserve has been destocked of sheep and under effective rabbit control since 1992.

Snares crested penguins Eudyptes robustus population estimates 2000–2013

New Zealand (NZ) is an internationally significant area for penguins. All NZ penguin species are listed in ‘at risk’ threat categories. The naturally uncommon Snares crested penguins (Eudyptes robustus), which are restricted to NZ subantarctic islands, are highly susceptible to localised stochastic events and human activities. There has been uncertainty about population size and trends for Snares crested penguins.

Declining eastern rockhopper (Eudyptes filholi) and erect-crested (E. sclateri) penguins on the Antipodes Islands, New Zealand

New Zealand’s subantarctic Antipodes Islands are of international significance for breeding seabirds. However, penguin populations on the islands are declining. Uncertainty about the extent of this decline has been accentuated by a lack of accurate information on the population size and nest distribution of the penguin species, and the absence of an appropriate methodology for their long-term monitoring. We surveyed the nest abundance and distribution of eastern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes filholi) and erect-crested penguins (E.