Anticoagulant poisons, especially the second-generation anticoagulant brodifacoum, are used worldwide to eradicate pest mammals from high priority nature sites. However, the potency and persistence of brodifacoum may present threats to non-target species. In New Zealand, most ecosystems lack native terrestrial mammals; instead, birds, reptiles and invertebrates fulfil key ecosystem roles. Introduced mammals represent the biggest threat to persistence of native species.
Toxins, especially sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) and brodifacoum, are widely used throughout New Zealand for control of introduced mammals that are considered pests. This level of toxin use (not necessarily with these toxins) is unlikely to decline for at least 5-10 years. Ecological consequences derive both from mammal population reduction or eradication, and from using toxins as the control method.