exotic species

Native and adventive detritivores (Diplopoda, Isopoda and Amphipoda) in a modified landscape: influence of forest type and edge

The distribution and prevalence in New Zealand of adventive detritivores in native forest remnants, and of native detritivores in pine plantations, are not well known. We investigated whether forest type (small urban native remnants, large remote native remnants, and pine) and plot location (edge plot vs centre plot) influenced the abundance and community composition of native and adventive detritivores (Diplopoda, Isopoda, and Amphipoda) in forests of a modified landscape in the lower North Island of New Zealand.

Birds and small mammals in kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) and gorse (Ulex europaeus) scrub and the resulting seed rain and seedling dynamics

Native kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) and adventive gorse (Ulex europaeus) stands aged 10-14 years, and not grazed by domestic stock, were studied near Nelson, New Zealand. The aim was to determine their use by introduced small mammals, and native and adventive birds, and the effects of these animals on seed rain and seedling dynamics as factors influencing vegetation succession. Seed traps were established where they could catch only bird-dispersed or wind-blown seed, and seedling emergence and growth were monitored.

Post-pastoral changes in composition and guilds in a semi-arid conservation area, Central Otago, New Zealand

Changes in the vegetation of Flat Top Hill, a highly modified conservation area in semi;arid Central Otago, New Zealand, are described four years after the cessation of sheep and rabbit grazing. Unusually moist weather conditions coincide with the four-year period of change in response to the cessation of grazing. Between 1993 and 1997, the average richness and diversity (H') of species increased, and the average proportion of native species decreased significantly.

The genetics of naturalization: A comparison of morphological variation within and between populations of Agrostis capillaris L as an exotic in New Zealand and as a native in Britain

Previous work in New Zealand has shewn that genetic variation within populations of Agrostis capillaris can be comparable to that between populations, even between populations over a very wide environmental range. To determine whether this reflects the recent advent of A. capillaris in New Zealand, with a small founding gene pool and a short time for ecotypic differentiation, populations from a comparable range of environments were sampled randomly in the same way in Britain.

The vegetation of Flat Top Hill: An area of semi-arid grassland/shrubland in Central Otago, New Zealand

An account is given of the vegetation of Flat Top Hill, in the driest part of semi-arid lowland Central Otago, New Zealand. Although highly modified, the area was acquired for conservation in 1992, following almost 150 years of pastoral use. The vegetation was sampled in a composite scheme using permanent monitoring sites placed to include the majority of habitats and communities present. A number of environmental factors were measured in each sample. Native species comprise 53% of the vascular flora of the area (211 species).