exotic seed dispersers

Introduced blackbirds and song thrushes: useful substitutes for lost mid-sized native frugivores, or weed vectors?

The New Zealand avifauna has declined from human impacts, which might leave some larger-seeded native plants vulnerable to dispersal failure. We studied fruit dispersal in a lowland secondary forest near Kaikoura, where the only remaining native frugivores are relatively small (silvereye Zosterops lateralis, and bellbird Anthornis melanura). We tested whether two larger exotic frugivores (blackbird Turdus merula and song thrush T. philomelos) dispersed native plants with seeds too large for the two smaller native frugivores.