Tree holes in a mixed broad-leaf–podocarp rain forest, New Zealand

Despite the ecological importance of tree holes as habitat for many species in New Zealand, few studies have quantified the abundance, distribution or structural characteristics of tree holes in native forests. We recorded a total of 364 tree holes in ground-to-canopy surveys on 50 trees of five endemic species in the families Fagaceae and Podocarpaceae within Orikaka Ecological Area, Buller District, New Zealand. Tree holes were not uniformly distributed throughout the forest, with more holes in the three podocarp species Prumnopitys ferruginea, P.