climate change

The conservation long game: Leiopelma species climate envelopes in New Zealand under a changing climate

Amphibians are considered susceptible to a range of potential effects generated by climate change. We applied species distribution model (SDM) techniques to predict future areas of climatic suitability for Archey’s and Hochstetter’s frogs under two different climate change scenarios using climate variables derived from their existing geographic extent. For Hamilton’s frog their current range was too restricted to model future range, so we used past climate data from current strongholds to establish that these sites may not be suitable for this species in the long-term.

Ranges of woody plant species and ferns on forested elevational gradients on Aotea-Great Barrier Island, New Zealand: the role of zones of permanent and temporary establishment

The arrangement of plant species along elevational gradients is prominent in the debate between individualistic versus community-unit concepts in plant ecology. We obtained elevational ranges (upper and lower elevation limits) for woody species and ferns on the three highest mountains on Aotea (Great Barrier Island), Aotearoa-New Zealand. These data allowed potential species composition to be obtained for any elevation and were analysed using regression, ordination, and classification. Both woody plants and ferns demonstrated linear declines in richness with increasing elevation.

Future climates are predicted to alter the potential distributions of non-native conifer species in New Zealand

Non-native conifers constitute a significant threat to the ecology and biodiversity of many of New Zealand’s native ecosystems and species. From the top down, the potential distributions of non-native conifer species are governed by climate suitability, which alongside variables such as the availability of suitable habitats and a source of propagules determines whether an area of land will be susceptible to invasion by a given species.

Ecology of scree skinks (Oligosoma waimatense) in O Tu Wharekai Wetland, mid-Canterbury high country, New Zealand

Many of New Zealand’s 104 lizard taxa are restricted to the country’s main islands where they are vulnerable to a range of threats. Information on population trends and basic ecological data are lacking for most species, hampering conservation efforts. We monitored a population of scree skinks (Oligosoma waimatense; conservation status: Nationally Vulnerable) in an alluvial stream bed in O Tu Wharekai Wetland in the mid-Canterbury high country over 10 years (2008−2018) to understand aspects of the population’s ecology, and to clarify potential threats and options for management.

How elevation affects ship rat (Rattus rattus) capture patterns, Mt Misery, New Zealand

There is a lack of information about how elevation affects the distribution of ship rats in New Zealand. In this study, ship rats (Rattus rattus) were captured in traps set along a 2 km elevational transect (455–1585 m a.s.l.) in beech (Nothofagaceae) forest and adjacent alpine tussock at Mt Misery, in Nelson Lakes National Park, from 1974 to 1993. A total of 118 rats were captured.

Future-proofing weed management for the effects of climate change: is New Zealand underestimating the risk of increased plant invasions?

Climate change may exacerbate the impacts of plant invasions by providing opportunities for new naturalisations and for alien species to expand into regions where previously they could not survive and reproduce. Although climate change is not expected to favour invasive plants in every case, in Aotearoa-New Zealand a large pool of potential new weeds already exists and this country is predicted to be an ‘invasion hotspot’ under climate change.

The urban community and natural resources: Climatic change and atmospheric pollution.

Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide content was concluded to have had an ambiguous climatic influence and may be less important than sometimes considered. Several studies have suggested increased turbidity has produced a recent global cooling trend. An examination of some climatic effects of volcanic eruption was made in relation to the prediction that the effect of 500 supersonic transport aircraft would be comparable over the North Atlantic to the amount of stratospheric injection from the 1963 Mount Agung eruption.

Experimental studies on the drought, waterlogging, and frost tolerance of Ascarina lucida Hook. f (Chloranthaceae) seedlings

Ascarina lucida Hook.f. (Chloranthaceae) is a small tree species endemic to New Zealand. The distribution of A. lucida suggests an inability to survive severe frosts or droughts. Therefore, peaks in the abundance of A. lucida in pollen records have usually been interpreted as indicating periods of mild, moist climates. The environmental tolerance of A. lucida seedlings to climatic extremes was experimentally tested by exposing seedlings to frost, drought, and waterlogged soil conditions. This research confirms the sensitivity of A. lucida to climatic extremes.

The environmental consequences to New Zealand of nuclear warfare in the northern hemisphere

The New Zealand Ecological Society is a scientific society formed in 1951 "to promote the study of ecology and the application of ecological knowledge in all its aspects". It draws its membership primarily from research and teaching institutions. On three occasions in its history the Society has prepared substantive statements on ecological issues it regarded as of national importance: the utilisation of South Island beech forests (1973); a population policy for New Zealand (1974); and the generation of nuclear power in New Zealand (1977).

A research strategy for biodiversity conservation on New Zealand’s offshore islands

New Zealand’s offshore islands are refuges for many threatened species, a high proportion of vertebrate diversity, and the world’s most diverse fauna of seabirds. We present key issues and questions that can be used to guide research on the conservation of biodiversity on these islands. Four global reviews formed a basis from which we identified research questions of potential relevance to the management of these islands. The research questions were assigned in the context of nine objectives proposed as a means of achieving ecological integrity.