Islands offer unique opportunities and challenges in biosecurity and conservation management. We review current and past island biosecurity within Tāmaki Makaurau-Auckland’s 1.2 million ha Hauraki Gulf Marine Park (HGMP), which includes 30 island groups, many of which are inhabited. We highlight evolving challenges and changes in island biosecurity focus. Eradication of introduced mammals from islands in the HGMP has restored mammal pest-free status to around 16 islands/island groups, i.e. over half.