Herbivore damage and leaf loss in the New Zealand pepper tree ('kawakawa', Macropiper excelsum, Piperaceae)

The pattern of herbivore damage on the New Zealand pepper tree (kawakawa; Macropiper excelsum) caused by its main insect herbivore (Cleora scriptaria) was investigated in the field and laboratory. In the field, only a small proportion of kawakawa leaves had no herbivore damage and C. scriptaria typically produced a number of small holes in each leaf. Leaves were shed at a rapid rate but leaf shedding was not increased by higher levels of herbivore damage.

Indigenous invertebrate components in ecological restoration in agricultural landscapes

The challenge of community restoration is to understand and exploit the principles of ecological succession at all seral stages, by complementing and accelerating the processes of colonisation and regeneration. The main aim is to construct self-sustaining,appropriate communities, connected in the landscape, that meet conservation, landscape and crop production goals. Research, to date, has been biased towards the plant and soil components with little consideration for the animal element.

Mineral Element Concentrations in Foliage of Divaricate and Non-Divaricate Coprosma Species

The levels of mineral elements in foliage of 10 Coprosma species growing in secondary forest in Dunedin were compared using canonical discriminant analysis. The results revealed distinctive patterns of nutrient accumulation separating divaricating and non-divaricating growth forms. Foliar concentrations of N, P and Na were higher in divaricating species, particularly those with small, membranous leaves, compared with smaIl- and large-leaved non-divaricating species.

Flower predation by Zelleria maculata (Lepidoptera) on Peraxilla mistletoes: effects of latitude and fragmentation, and impact on fruit set

Flower predators (florivores) may affect plant reproduction directly through loss of pollen and ovules, or indirectly by deterring pollinators which avoid damaged flowers. Caterpillars of the widespread endemic moth Zelleria maculata feed inside flower buds of the endemic mistletoes Peraxilla tetrapetala and P. colensoi in New Zealand. We measured flower predation rates between 1995 and 2007 at 24 sites throughout New Zealand and assessed Zelleria feeding impact on fruit set.

Response of seedling communities to mammalian pest eradication on Ulva Island, Rakiura National Park, New Zealand

Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) were eradicated from Ulva Island, Rakiura National Park, in 1996. The aim of our work was to determine if seedlings and saplings increased in density and/or species richness following this eradication. In 2003, we took advantage of eight permanent plots (5 × 5 m) that had been established on Ulva Island in 1991, by counting seedlings and saplings of woody species, including tree ferns. Over this period, total numbers of woody seedlings (P > 0.05).

Introduced red deer reduce tree regeneration in Pureora Forest, central North Island, New Zealand

This study uses data from repeatedly measured forest monitoring plots (20 × 20 m) (n = 32) and nine ungulate exclosures (paired fenced and unfenced plots; 20 × 20 m) to show the effects of introduced ungulates on tree regeneration in Pureora Forest Park, central North Island, between 974 and 2002.