Invasive alien species (IAS) are a recognised threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services. With increasing tourism and projected 21st century climate changes across the mid- to high-latitudes of the southern hemisphere, subantarctic islands are potentially highly vulnerable to IAS, but suffer from a dearth of baseline monitoring. Here we report tree-ring measurements from a lone exotic Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) on subantarctic Campbell Island to determine past growth rates and likely future response to climate changes.
Globally, lowland forests have been depleted, fragmented, and degraded by land clearance and conversion by humans. Many remnants are also invaded by non-native plants and mammals, which can exacerbate biodiversity loss and impede ecosystem recovery. We examined the effects of non-native ground cover weeds and mammals on the seedling recruitment of native woody plants in lowland forests in northern New Zealand by following establishment over 2 years at sites experiencing different levels of weed cover, with or without supplemental seed addition, and with or without mammal exclusion.