Assessing the population trend and threats to New Zealand’s Fiordland crested penguin using counting and demographic modelling approaches

The Fiordland crested penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus is one of the least studied crested penguin species, with indications the species has a declining population, which would be in line with the historic and contemporary trends for most crested penguins. To determine the current population trend of the Fiordland crested penguin, a number of monitoring programmes using both abundance counts and demographic modelling approaches were carried out between 1990 and 2010 in the northern half of the speciesí range.